Các lệnh truy vấn trong Selenium WebDriver Python

Anh Tester chia sẻ cho các bạn mới học Selenium Python danh sách các lệnh có sẵn (Cheat Sheet) trong Selenium WebDriver và cách sử dụng của chúng.

1. Import the Selenium library

You can get Selenium from here.

from selenium import webdriver
 

2. Start the webdriver and the browser

Starting the webdriver and the Chrome browser.

You can get ChromeDriver from here.

chromedriver = "C:/tests/chromedriver.exe"
driver = webdriver.Chrome(executable_path = chromedriver)
 

Starting the webdriver and the Firefox browser.

You can get GeckoDriver from here.

geckodriver = "C:/tests/geckodriver.exe"
driver = webdriver.Firefox(executable_path = geckodriver)
 

Starting the webdriver and the Internet Explorer browser.

You can get IEDriverServer from here.

iedriver = "C:/tests/IEDriverServer.exe"
driver = webdriver.Firefox(executable_path = iedriver)
 

Starting the webdriver and the Safari browser.

Nothing to download. The SafariDriver is integrated in Safari.

driver = webdriver.Safari()
 

3. Open a website

the_url = "https://anhtester.com"
driver.get(the_url)
 

4. Find an element

Let's try to find this element:

<a href="/sign-up" id="register" name="register" class="cta nav-link">
    Sign Up
</a>

Find element by ID

the_id = 'register'
element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_id)
 

Find element by Name

the_name = 'register'
element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_name)
 

Find element by Class Name

the_class_name = 'nav-link'
element = driver.find_element_by_class_name(the_class_name)
 

Find element by Tag Name

the_tag_name = 'a'
element = driver.find_element_by_tag_name(the_tag_name)
 

Find element by Link Text

Works only for anchor elements.

the_link_text = 'Sign Up'
element = driver.find_element_by_link_text(the_link_text)
 

Find element by Partial Link Text

Works only for anchor elements.

the_partial_link_text = 'Sign'
element = driver.find_element_by_partial_link_text(the_partial_link_text)
 

Find element by CSS Selector

You can extract the CSS Selector from the browser.

Or you can write your own by using an attribute from the element:

*[attribute="attribute_value"]
 

For our element, a custom CSS Selector would be:

a[href="/sign-up"]
 
the_css_selector = 'a[href="/sign-up"]'
element = driver.find_element_by_css_selector(the_css_selector)
 

Find element by XPath

You can extract the XPath from the browser.

Or you can write your own by using an attribute from the element:

//*[@attribute = "attribute_value"]
 

For our element, a custom XPath would be:

//a[@href = "/sign-up"]
 

You can read more about that here.

the_xpath = '//a[@href = "/sign-up"]'
element = driver.find_element_by_xpath(the_xpath)
 

5. Click on an element

the_id = 'register'
element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_id)
element.click()
 

6. Write text inside an element

Works only for inputs and text areas.

the_id = 'email'
the_email = 'klaus@werner.de'
element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_id)
element.send_keys(the_email)
 

7. Select an option

Works only for select elements.

<select id="country">
<option value="US">United States</option>
<option value="CA">Canada</option>
<option value="MX">Mexico</option>
</select>
 

Let's select Canada. 🇨🇦

You can use the visible text:

the_id = 'country'
element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_id)
select_element = Select(element)
select_element.select_by_visible_text('Canada')
 

You can use the value:

the_id = 'country'
element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_id)
select_element = Select(element)
select_element.select_by_value('CA')
 

You can also use the index:

the_id = 'country'
element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_id)
select_element = Select(element)
select_element.select_by_index(1)
 

8. Take a screenshot

the_path = 'C:/tests/screenshots/1.png'
driver.save_screenshot(the_path)
 

 

9. Upload a file

This works by using the send_keys method to write the local path of the file in the input type="file" element.

Let's use this example:

<input type="file" multiple="" id="upload_button">
 
the_file_path = 'C:/tests/files/example.pdf'
the_id = 'upload_button'
element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_id)
element.send_keys(the_file_path)
 

You can read more about uploading files in a test here.


10. Execute JavaScript

In some cases, you might need to execute some JavaScript code.

This works exactly like you would execute it in your browser console.

js_code = 'document.getElementById("pop-up").remove()'
driver = execute_script(js_code)
 

11. Switch to iframe

<iframe id="payment_section">
   <input id="card_number">
   <input id="card_name">
   <input id="expiration_date">
   <input id="cvv">
</iframe>
 
the_iframe_id = 'payment_section'
the_element_id = 'card_number'
the_iframe = driver.find_element_by_id(the_iframe_id)
driver.switch_to.frame(the_iframe)
element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_element_id)
element.send_keys('41111111111111')
driver.switch_to.default_content()
 

 

12. Switch to the next tab

You have to store the handle of your current tab in a global variable.

If you have only one tab open, the handle is 0.

global nextTab
global currentTab
nextTab = currentTab + 1
driver.switch_to_window(driver.window_handles[nextTab])
currentTab = currentTab + 1
 

13. Switch to the previous tab

global previousTab
global currentTab
previousTab = currentTab - 1
driver.switch_to_window(driver.window_handles[previousTab])
currentTab = currentTab - 1
 

14. Close tab

driver.close()
 

15. Close alert

driver.switch_to.alert.accept()
 

16. Refresh

driver.refresh()
 

17. Hover

the_id = "register"
the_element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_id)
hover = ActionChains(driver).move_to_element(the_element)
hover.perform()
 

18. Right Click

the_id = "register"
the_element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_id)
right_click = ActionChains(driver).context_click(the_element)
right_click.perform()
 

19. Click with offset

In order to precisely click on a certain position in a canvas element, you have to provide the offset.

The offset represents the number of pixels to the right and down, starting from the top left corner of your canvas element.

the_id = "register"
the_element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_id)
x = 30
y = 20
offset = ActionChains(driver).move_to_element_with_offset(the_element,x,y)
offset.click()
offset.perform()
 

20. Press Key

the_id = 'register'
element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_id)
element.send_keys(Keys.RETURN)
 

21. Drag and drop

 

element_to_drag_id = 'ball'
target_element_id = 'goal'
element_to_drag = driver.find_element_by_id(element_to_drag_id)
target_element = driver.find_element_by_id(target_element_id)
ActionChains(driver).drag_and_drop(element_to_drag_id, target_element).perform()


22. Get Page Source

the_page_source = driver.page_source
 

23. Get Cookies

cookies_list = driver.get_cookies()
 

24. Delete Cookies

cookie_item = 'shopping_cart'
# delete one cookie
driver.delete_cookie(cookie_item)
# delete all cookies
driver.delete_all_cookies()
 

25. Get first element from list

the_id = 'register'
list_of_elements = driver.find_elements_by_id(the_id)
first_element = list_of_elements[0]
 

26. Configure Page Load Timeout

driver.set_page_load_timeout(20)
 

27. Configure Element Load Timeout

from selenium.webdriver.support.ui import WebDriverWait

the_id = 'register'
WebDriverWait(driver,10).until(EC.presence_of_element_located((By.ID, the_id)))


28. Set window size

driver.set_window_size(1600, 1200)
 

29. Change the user agent string

the_user_agent = 'hello'
chromedriver = 'C:/tests/chromedriver.exe'
options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
options.add_argument('--user-agent = '+ the_user_agent)
driver = webdriver.Chrome(
   executable_path = chromedriver, 
   chrome_options = options)
 

30. Simulate webcam and microphone

chromedriver = 'C:/tests/chromedriver.exe'
options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
options.add_argument("--use-fake-ui-for-media-stream")
options.add_argument("--use-fake-device-for-media-stream")
driver = webdriver.Chrome(
   executable_path = chromedriver, 
   chrome_options = options)
 

31. Add Chrome Extension

chromedriver = 'C:/tests/chromedriver.exe'
extension_path = 'C:/tests/my_extension.zip'
options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
options.add_extension(extension_path)
driver = webdriver.Chrome(
   executable_path = chromedriver, 
   chrome_options = options)
 

32. Emulate mobile device

google_pixel_3_xl_user_agent = 'Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; Android 9.0; Pixel 3 XL Build/OPD3.170816.012) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/61.0.3163.98 Mobile Safari/537.36'
pixel_3_xl_emulation = {
   "deviceMetrics": {
      "width": 411, 
      "height": 731, 
      "pixelRatio": 3
   },
   "userAgent": google_pixel_3_xl_user_agent
}
options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
options.add_experimental_option("mobileEmulation", pixel_3_xl_emulation)
driver = webdriver.Chrome(
   executable_path = chromedriver, 
   chrome_options = options)

 

Browser Details

#Get Browser Name
print(browser.name)

#Get Title
print(browser.title)

#Get Current URL
print(browser.current_url)

#Get Current Window Handle
print(browser.current_window_handle)

#Get All Window Handles
handles_list=browser.window_handles

#Get Page Source
print(browser.page_source)
 
 

Maximize and Minimize

browser.maximize_window()
browser.minimize_window()

 

 

Switch to Frame & Window

browser.switch_to.active_element

browser.switch_to.alert

browser.switch_to.default_content()

# You can pass Window Name or Handle to switch between windows
browser.switch_to.window("window_name")

#You can switch to frame using Name, ID, Index & WebElement
browser.switch_to.frame(1)

browser.switch_to.parent_frame()
 


Back, Forward & Refresh

browser.back()
browser.forward()
browser.refresh()
 

Cookies

#Get all cookies in a list
cookies_list = browser.get_cookies

#Get a Cookie value
cookie_value = browser.get_cookie("my_cookie")

#Delete a Cookie
browser.delete_cookie("my_cookie")

#Delete all Cookies
browser.delete_all_cookies()

#Add Cookie
browser.add_cookie({"name:value"})
 
 

Finding Elements

#Find Element(s) By ID
element = browser.find_element_by_id("txt_1")
elements = browser.find_elements_by_id("txt_1")

#Find Element By XPATH
browser.find_element_by_xpath("//input")

#Find Element By Link Text
browser.find_element_by_link_text("Products")

#Find Element By Link Text
browser.find_element_by_link_text("Products")

#Find Element By Partial Link Text
browser.find_element_by_partial_link_text('Sign')

#Find Element By Name
browser.find_elements_by_name('foo')

#Find Element By Tag Name
browser.find_elements_by_tag_name('Input')

#Find Element By Class Name
browser.find_elements_by_class_name('breadcrumb')

#Find Element By CSS Selector
browser.find_elements_by_css_selector('input[name="txt"]')
 

About the author

  • Anh Tester

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